Inside Harrah's Northern California Casino
Correction Appended DENVER, April 1 - The Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians have not had land in Colorado since many of their women and children were massacred in their sleep by soldiers at Sand Creek in 1864.
Driven out of the state, they live today in poor rural areas scattered around Oklahoma.
Oklahoma was never our home.
It is a practice known as off-reservation gambling.
Its critics use a harsher phrase, reservation shopping.
Currently there are efforts by several tiny landless bands of Indians in California to build casinos in three cities on San Francisco Bay.
There are also proposals by three tribes, now in Oklahoma, to construct casinos in Ohio, where they once lived.
And there are tribes in Wisconsin and Oklahoma, originally from New York, that have proposed exchanging their land california indian casino list for the right to build casinos in the Catskills.
With that kind of money in Indian gambling, the drive for permission to build casinos far from reservations is drawing protests from more established Indian gambling operations that do not want more local competition, as well as from tribes that built casinos on their own remote lands, limiting the kinds of profits they can make.
The trend has also come under scrutiny in Congress, where the Senate Indian Affairs Committee, headed by Senator John McCain, Republican click here Arizona, is examining such proposals and where lawmakers in both houses are considering more stringent rules, like banning tribes from moving across state borders and giving greater say to other tribes that would be affected.
Certainly, the push for off-reservation gambling is not what Congress had in mind when california indian casino list 1988 it passed the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act legalizing Indian casinos.
Congress envisioned that the law would help impoverished tribes on remote and already existing reservations in states like South Dakota or New Mexico open small casinos as a way to create jobs and, perhaps, foster long-needed economic development.
In many ways, the law has been successful.
There are now 411 tribes operating casinos that employ 553,000 people, the National Indian Gaming Association calculates.
George opposes off-reservation gambling.
The reason is largely economic.
If the tribes from Oklahoma and Wisconsin succeed in exchanging their land claims for casinos in the Catskills, california indian casino list example, they would directly compete with a similar plan by the Oneida tribe, to which Mr.
The proposal for the casino near Denver grew out of an effort to help the Cheyenne and Arapaho in Oklahoma by Steve Hillard, a venture capitalist from Golden, just outside Denver, who has specialized in making investments to benefit Native American groups, particularly those in Alaska.
Hillard, who grew up in Colorado, said he had long wanted to find a deal that would help the Cheyenne and Arapaho, and so two years ago he called their tribal leaders proposing to acquire a chain of radio stations for them.
But after a visit to Oklahoma, Mr.
Hillard changed his plans.
The tribal leaders offered a different idea.
They wanted to return to Colorado and they wanted to open a casino.
Under federal law, if a tribe wants to open a casino on land it does not already control as part of a reservation, it must get permission both from the governor and the secretary of the interior.
Hillard decided on a bold two-pronged strategy, a stick and a carrot.
The stick was to file claims with the Department of the Interior in April last year for 27 million acres in Colorado that the Cheyenne and Arapaho said were theirs under an 1851 treaty.
As the carrot, Mr.
The tribes would also give up their broader claims for land in Colorado.
Bill Owens rejected the plan, leaving the project at an impasse.
In an interview, Mr.
Owens, a Republican, said his opposition was not a moral "Christian right kind of thing.
Hillard says the tribes can wait out the governor.
Owens's term expires next year, and he cannot run again because of a term limit.
Blind, the vice chairman of california indian casino list business committee, said there was evidence that the tribal leaders at the time did not understand what they were doing.
Correction: April 22, 2005, Friday An article on April 8 about efforts by Indian tribes in remote areas to acquire land near cities for casinos referred incompletely to a tribe from Wisconsin that seeks to build casinos in the Catskills, in competition with Oneida from New York.
The Wisconsin tribe is a branch of the Oneida.
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